The Vitamin D Radio

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a protein that is stimulated by calciferol. It is linked to maintaining the mineral harmony in the body and leading to growth and hair development. It also interacts with adipose skin.

VDRs will be expressed inside the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial skin cells, and many immune cell types. They are believed to regulate the intestinal ingestion of calcium supplements, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D in bone repair. Fortunately they are thought to play an important function in metabolic rate.

VDR can be found in a variety of flesh, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they can be most widely indicated in the kidneys and our bones.

The VDR is phosphorylated on serine residues by a variety of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect of the kinases about VDR is usually ligand centered. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by simply PKC decreased VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Studies have shown that VDRs exist in a subset of glial cells, particularly in oligodendrocytes in white matter. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been found in a number of glial cell lines, no research has been provided that the occurrence of VDR in glia is a cause for increased risk of tumorigenesis.

Additionally , VDR seems to be present in a subset of neurons. In fact , nuclear discoloration has been shown in person cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein can be found in human primary glioblastoma cells. In contrast, a little recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.

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